2 LP - 6.35362-EX - (p) 1978

2 CD - 8.35362 ZL - (c) 1989

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

Das Kantatenwerk - Vol. 20

Kantate "Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes", BWV 76
30' 32" A
Solo: Sopran, Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Tromba (Naturtrompete in C, Zugtrompete; Oboe I, II, Oboe d'amore; Viola da gamba; Streicher; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

Prima parte

- Coro "Die Himmel eryàhlen die Ehre Gottes" 4' 49"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "So läßt sich Gott nicht unbezeuget" 1' 23"

- Aria (Soprano) "Hört, Ihr Völker" 4' 48"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Wer aber hört" 0' 28"

- Aria (Basso) "fahr hin, abgöttische Zunft" 3' 21"

- Recitativo (Alto) "Du hast uns, Herr, von allen Straßen" 1' 25"

- Choral "Es woll uns Gott genädig sein" 1' 55"

Seconda parte

- Sinfonia 2' 26"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Gott segne noch die treue Schar" 0' 40"

- Aria (Tenore) "Hasse nur, hasse mich recht" 2' 41"

- Recitativo (Alto) "Ich fühle schon im Geist" 0' 48"

- Aria (Alto) "Liebt, ihr Christen, in der Tat" 3' 14"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "So soll die Christenheit" 0' 33"

- Choral "Es danke, Gott, und lobe dich" 1' 57"

Kantate "Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben", BWV 77

15' 49" B
Solo: Soprano, Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Tromba da tirarsi (Zugtrompete), Oboe I, II; Streicher; B.c. (Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Coro "Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben" 4' 30"

- Recitativo (Basso) "So muß es sein" 0' 35"

- Aria (Soprano) "Mein Gott, ich liebe dich von Herzen" 4' 17"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "Gib mir dabei, mein Gott! ein Samariterherz" 0' 57"

- Aria (Alto) "Ach, es bleibt in meiner Liebe" 4' 33"

- Choral "Herr, durch den Glauben wohn in mir" 0' 56"

Kantate "Jesu, der du meine Seele", BWV 78
21' 12" C
Solo: Sopran, Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Corno (Zugtrompete); Flauto traverso; Oboe I, II; Streicher; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Coro "Jesu, der du meine Seele" 5' 23"

- Aria, Duetto (Soprano, Alto) "Wir eilen mit schwachen, doch emsigen Schritten" 5' 03"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "Ach! ich bin ein kind der Sünden" 1' 43"

- Aria (Tenore) "Das Blut, so meine Schuld durchstreicht" 3' 09"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Die Wunden, Nägel, Kron und Grab" 1' 49"

- Aria (Basso) "Nun du wirst mein Gwissen stillen" 2' 57"

- Choral "Herr, ich glaube, hilf mir Schwachen" 1' 02"

Kantate "Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn' und Schild", BWV 79
15' 56" D
Solo: Sopran, Alt, Baß - Chor

Corno I, II (Naturhörner in G), Timpani; Oboe I, II; Streicher; B.c. (Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Coro "Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn' und Schild" 5' 01"

- Aria (Alto) "Gott ist unsre Sonn' und Schild" 3' 40"

- Choral "Nun danket alle Gott" 2' 12"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Gottlob, wir wissen den rechten Weg" 0' 52"

- Aria, Duetto (Soprano, Basso) "Gott, ach Gott, verlaß die deinen nimmermehr" 3' 12"

- Choral "Erhalt uns in der Wahrheit" 0' 35"

Kantaten 76 - 78
Kantaten 77 - 79

Wilhelm Wiedl (Tölzer Knabenchores), Sopran
Detlef Bratschke (Knabenchores Hannover), Sopran
Paul Esswood, Alt Paul Esswood, Alt
Kurt Equiluz, Tenor Adalbert Kraus, Tenor
Ruud van der Meer, Baß Max van Egmond, Baß

Tölzer Knabenchor Knabenchor Hannover
(Gerhard Schmidt-Gaden, Leitung) (Heinz Hennig, Leitung)

Collegium Vocale

CONCENTUS MUSICUS WIEN (Philippe Herreweghe, Leitung)
- Josef Spindler, Naturtrompete in C

- Don Smithers, Zugtrompete LEONHARDT-CONSORT
- Leopold Stastny, Flauto traverso - Don Smithers, Zugtrompete (Tromba da tirarsi)
- Jürg Schaeftlein, Oboe, Oboe d'amore - Adrian van Woudenberg, Hörn
- David Reichenberg, Oboe
- Iman Soeteman, Hörn

- Alice Harnoncourt, Violine - Ku Ebbinge, Oboe

- Walter Pfeiffer, Violine - Bruce Haynes, Oboe
- Peter Schoberwalter, Violine - Nick Woud, Pauken
- Wilhelm Mergl, Violine - Marie Leonhardt, Violine
- Anita Mitterer, Violine (76/1,7,14; 78) - Alda Stuurop, Violine

- Ingrid Seifert, Violine (76/1,7,14; 78) - Antoinette van den Hombergh, Violine
- Veronika Schmidt, Violine (76/2,5,9) - Janneke van der Meer, Violine

- Josef de Sordi, Viola - Keiko Watanabe, Violine
- Kurt Theiner, Viola - Wiel Peeters, Viola
- Milan Turkovic, Fagott - Ruth Hesseling, Viola
- Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Viola da gamba, Violoncello - Anner Bylsma, Violoncello
- Eduard Hruza, Violone - Dijck Koster, Violoncello (77/1,6; 79/1,3,5,6)
- Herbert Tachezi, Orgel - Richte van der Meer, Violoncello (77/4)
- Johann Sonnleitner, Orgel (78/1,2) - Anthony Woodrow, Violone

- Gustav Leonhardt, Orgel
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Gesamtleitung - Bob van Asperen, Orgel (79/5)

Gustav Leonhardt, Gesamtleitung
Luogo e data di registrazione
Casino Zögernitz, Vienna (Austria):
- ottobre 1976 (BWV 76)
- ottobre 1976 e aprile 1977 (BWV 78)
Amsterdam (Olanda) - maggio 1977 (BWV 77 e 79)
Registrazione live / studio
Producer / Engineer
Wolf Erichson
Prima Edizione CD
Teldec "Das Alte Werk" - 8.35362 ZL - (2 cd) - 46' 35" + 36' 57" - (c) 1989 - ADD
Prima Edizione LP
Telefunken "Das Alte Werk" - 6.35362 EX (SKW 20/1-2) - (2 lp) - 46' 35" + 36' 57" - (p) 1978

Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes (BWV 76), composed for the Second Sunday after Trinity (June 6) 1723, is Bach’s second Leipzig cantata. It shares with its sister work, Cantata No. 75 composed the week before, special formal, instrumental and vocal extravagance with which the new Cantor at St Thomas demonstrated his ability as a craftsman and his background in the theological field: an expansive two-part form with seven movements each, at the beginning of the first part a particularly demanding chorus, at the beginning of the second an instrumental Sinfonia, and at the conclusion of both parts rnusrcally identical chorale movements with obbligato instruments. Furthermore, Bach includes a quartet of soloists, choir and a large-scale range of instruments with an overall tonal openness in the first part (C major - E minor) and tonal integration in the second (E minor).
The opening chorus develops the two psalm verses which serve as the spiritual motto of the work, in a grand binary form analogous to the prelude and fugue model. The first verse is rendered in concertante polyphonic style by the choir and orchestra, with the trumpet supplying a festive note. The second is featured as a slow and powerfully rising choral fugue with colla parte instruments but thematic application of the trumpet as the climax ofthe final fugal augmentation. An accompagnato with arioso middle section, the figurations of which set out the ”activity” of heaven, spirit and body according to Godßs commandment, leads on to the G-major aria of the soprano which is entirely developed - also in the middle section of the da capo layout - form the signal motif of the inejunction "Hört, ihr Völker.” With a brief secco recitative the bass turns to the representation of the counter-world, of the ”idolatrous mob." The rejection of the ”greatest multitude" is brought off in a veritable battle aria, a virtuoso showpiece for bass and trumpet in C major. A simple recitative leads to the concluding chorus of the first part which, by way of preimitations of the chorale melody in the trumpet, interludes by the orchestra and obbligato leading ol the first violin - similar to the chorale setting in Cantata No. 75 - is festively expanded beyond the traditional cantata-type movement.
The second part is clearly of chamber music hue, but otherwise to a large extent similar in form to the first. The Sinfonia, a soloist trio movement which Bach later took over in his Organ Trio BWV 528, again reflects in chamber music manner the formal model of the prelude and fugue. The first recitative is especially carefully through-composed. The tenor aria which follows brings the soprano aria to mind in its uniform and sparing motivic expression and, in the battlelike accent, harks back to the bass aria of the first part. The last aria reverts in its scoring for oboe d’amore and viola da gamba, as in the worked-through trio nrovement, to the Sinfonia of the second part. Its gentle, almost bucolic mood, like the generally more intimate and delicate tone of the second part, is answered by the repetition of the chorus as a powerful concluding accent.
Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben (BWV 77), was written for the l3th Sunday after Trinity (August 22) 1723, and thus is also from Bach’s first annual cantata cycle in Leipzig. Diametrically opposed to Cantata No. 76, it is one of the shortest and most modest of Bach’s cantatas. At the same time, however, because of its opening chorus it is one of the extreme exarnples of the profound, theologically symbolic compositional manner which so thoroughly sets Bach apart from all his composing contemporaries. The quotation from the Gospel according to St Luke, which forms the text of the choir, is compositionally set in accordance with a parallel passage found in Matthew 22: 34-40, where the love of God and of one's neighbours is described as the foundation ”of all the law." For this reason the motet-like imitative chorale movement is encompassed by a canon (being the law) ofthe outer voices, trumpet and bass (being the all-encompassing law) above the chorale "Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot” (all of the Ten Commandment's are included in the command to love). In this connection, the bass performs the melody in enlarged note values (the fundamental law) and the trumpet has ten entries (the Ten Commandments) and at the end once more renders the entire chorale, so that it appears to be omnipresent. Finally the motif of the singing voices hints at the chorale, clearly at least in the first motif (retrograde inversion of the first chorale line). Perhaps the most wonderful feature ofthe movement, however, is that the construction and symbolism have superirnposed upon them a powerful, solemn repetitive figure which culminates in the subsequent rendering of the entire chorale melody in the trumpet above the tonic pedal point, while the singing parts intone the second half of the texte - "und deineu Nächsten als dich selbst” (and love thy neighbour as thyself). Inevitably, compared with this mighty piece of music-theological text exegesis, the other movements of the cantata fade somewhat in comparison; the unusual simplicity of the two arias and their individual tone - as it were the answer of the individual Christian to the choir's promulgation of the law - show that this contrast was fully intended. The soprano aria announces the proximity of the loving Christian to God, emotionally in the gentle melody characterized by suspensions, symbolically in the parallel voice-leading of the oboes. The alto aria rs, despite its da capo form, less an aria than an intimate sacred song with simultaneously emotion-laden and almost galant-measure in the line-by-line melody. In rnarked contrast to this, as well as to the muted tenor of the text, is the use of the trumpet as the solo instrument. The concluding chorus, a relatively simple cantata movement, has come down to us without text. Judging from the contents of the cantata and the line and verse scheme given for the chorale melody ("Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein” - O God look down from Heaven above), it most likely relates to "Herr, durch den Glauben wohn in mir" (Lord, through faith, abide in me) from David Denicke’s hymn "O Gottes Sohn, Herr Jesu Christ" (O Son of God, Lord Jesus Christ).
Jesu, der du meine Seele (BWV 78), written for the l4lth Sunday after Trinity (September 10) 1724, is a "modified" chorale cantata. Thus the first and last verse are played unchanged at the beginning and end, whereas verses 2 to 11 are condensed and transformed into madrigalesque poetry. Thanks to its richness of form and its power of expression, il is one of the best known Bach cantatas altogether. The formal and tonal framework (G minor] is achieved by the choral movements which are related to each other by contrast. The opening chorus is an enormous passacaglia above a chromaticaliy descending motif frequently used by Bach as a symbol of suffering and pain. Into this is built the chorale, played line by line by the slide trumpet and first flute and expanded on by the chorus in motet style. Contrasting with this is the markedly uncomplicated concluding chorus, which renounces all development of text details and stands for the consolidated faith of the congregation despite all the weaknesses of the individual. The solo numbers mediate between these two extremes. In this connection the arias represent the ever-increasing consolation to be found in faith, while the two recitativcs paint a picture of sinfulnnss of man and the inseparability of terror and consolation in the redeeming sacrifice of the Saviour to a musically drastic degree which is unusual even for Bach. Compared with this, the arias have an almost elegant effect: the duet, with the "weak but diligent steps" of the thoroughhass and of the succeeding symbolism of the imitative voice entrances, the tenor aria with its integration of differentiated text interpretation in the singing part and sustained joyfui tone in the flute figures, and finally the bass aria with its optimistic concertante style. Within itself the sequence of arias is, over and above this, arranged as intensification: from the thoroughbass by way of the flute aria to the aria with concertante oboe and tutti strings.
Gott, der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (BWV 79) was probably written for Reformation Day (October 31) 1725. Similarly to Cantatas No. 77 and No. 78 it is concentrated almost entirely on  the opening chorus; but from the point of view of content it is uninterruptedly dominated by gratitude and joy, making it a work of demon strative and outgoing character. This is already made apparent by the orchestral scoring, with hprns and kettledrums, oboes, strings and continuo. to which flutes were added in subsequent performances. The orchestral prelude features the chorus bringing forth all the splendour appropriate for this particular day: a festive horn theme, then a lively fugato, and then both themes combined. The first choral sections are accompanied by the fugal theme and punctuated by the horn theme, and then a choral fugue develops from the instrumental fugue theme. Finally, the first choral section, freely repeated, is built into a repetition of the beginning and conclusion of the instrumental introduction. The alto aria which follows turns the jubilant note heard so far into an intimate and individual contemplation, although the text continues to speak of the congregation. The chorale once again takes up the horn theme of the first chorus and thus rounds off the three first parts of the work into one unit. Perhaps the sermon originally followed at this point. The movements which then follow are at any rate lightweight compared with the powerful first section of the cantata, and are of a markedly simple construction. In the concluding chorus, horns and kettledrums once more establish a relationship with the festive splendour of the opening half of the cantata, in keeping with the text of the chorale.
Ludwig Finscher

Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1929-2016)
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