2 LP - SKW 9/1-2 - (p) 1974

2 CD - 8.35035 ZL - (c) 1986

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

Das Kantatenwerk - Vol. 9

Kantate "Der Himmel lacht, die erde jubilieret", BWV 31
20' 49" A
Solo: Sopran, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Tromba I/II/III (Naturtrompeten in Es), Timpani; Oboe I, II, II, Taille (Tenoroboe in f); Streicher, B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Sonata, Allegro 3' 12"

- Coro (fünfstimmiger Chorsatz mit Sopran- und Altsoli) "Der Himmel lacht, die Erde jubilieret" 4' 06"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Erwünschter Tag! Sei, Seele, wieder froh" 2' 05"

- Aria (Basso) "Fürst des Lebens, starker Streiter" 2' 24"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "So stehe denn, du gottergebne Seele" 1' 07"

- Aria (Tenore) "Adam muß in uns verwesen" 2' 17"

- Recitativo (Soprano) "Weil denn das Haupt sein Glied" 0' 49"

- Aria (Soprano) "Letzte Stunde, brich herein" 3' 47"

- Choral "So fahr ich hin zu Jesu Christ" 1' 02"

Kantate "Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen", BWV 32

23' 34" B
Solo: Sopran, Baß - Chor

Oboe; Violino solo; Streicher; B.c. (Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Aria (Soprano) "Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen" 5' 41"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Was ist's, daß du mich gesichet?" 0' 27"

- Aria (Basso) "Hier, in meines Vaters Stätte" 7' 34"

- Recitativo (Soprano, Basso) "Ach! heiliger und großer Gott" 2' 48"

- Aria (Soprano, Basso) "Nun verschwinden alle Plagen" 6' 00"

- Choral (Coro) "Mein Gott, öffne mir die Pforten" 1' 04"

Kantate "Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ", BWV 33
21' 09" C
Solo: Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Oboe I/II; Streicher; B.c. (Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Choralchorsatz (Coro) "Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" 4' 52"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Mein Gott und Richter" 1' 04"

- Aria (Alto) "Wie furchtsam wankten meine Schritte" 8' 05"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "Mein Gott, verwirf mich nicht" 1' 09"

- Aria (Tenore, Basso) "Gott, der du die Liebe heißt" 4' 34"

- Choral (Coro) "Ehr sei Gott in dem höchsten Thron" 1' 25"

Kantate "O ewiges Feuer, o Ursprung der Liebe", BWV 34
18' 15" D
Solo: Alto, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Tromba I, II, III (Naturtrompeten in D), Timpani; Oboe I/II; Flauto Traverso I/II; Streicher; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Coro "O ewiges Feuer, o Ursprung der Liebe" 8' 02"

- Recitativo (Tenore) "Herr! unsre Herzen halten dir" 0' 38"

- Aria (Alto) "Wohl euch, ihr auserwählten Seelen" 6' 42"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Erwählt sich Gott die heil'gen Hütten" 0' 30"

- Coro "Friede über Israel! Dankt den höchsten Wunderhänden" 2' 23"

Kantaten 31 - 34
Kantaten 32 - 33

Solist der Wiener Sängerknaben, Sopran, Alt (31)
Walter Gampert, Sopran

Paul Esswood, Alt
René Jacobs, Alt
Kurt Equiluz, Tenor
Marius van Altena, Tenor

Siegmund Nimsgern, Baß Max van Egmond, Baß

Wiener Sängerknaben - Chorus Viennensis Tölzer Knabenchor / Hans Gillesberger, Leitung
(Hans Gillesberger, Leitung) King's College Choir Cambdrige / David Willcocks, Leitung

- Alice Harnoncourt, Violine
- Sigiswald Kuijken, Violine (32,3)

- Peter Schoberwalter, Violine - Marie Leonhardt, Violine
- Wilhelm Mergl, Violine - Lucy van Dael, Violine
- Walter Pfeiffer, Violine - Alda Stuurop, Violine
- Josef de Sordi, Violine
- Antoinette van den Hombergh, Violine
- Hans-Peter Ochsenhofer, Viola (31)
- Janneke van der Meer, Violine
- Kurt Theiner, Viola - Martin Sonneveld, Viola (32,6; 33,1; 33,6)

- Milan Turkovic, Fagott - Wim ten Have, Viola
- Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Violoncello - Wiel Peeters, Viola
- Eduard Hruza, Violone - Anner Bylsma, Violoncello
- Herbert Tachezi, Orgel - Dijck Koster, Violoncello
- Josef Spindler, Naturtrompete
- Richte van der Meer, Violoncello (32,4)
- Richard Rudolf, Naturtrompete
- Anthony Woodrow, Violone
- Hermann Schober, Naturtrompete
- Ku Ebbinge, Oboe (32,1; 32,5)

. Günter Spindler, Naturtrompete (34)
- Bruce Haynes, Oboe (32,6)

- Kurt Hammer, Pauken - Gustav Leonhardt, Orgel
- Leopold Stastny, Querflöte - Ton Koopman, Orgel (32,1; 32,4)

- Gottfried Hechtl, Querflöte

- Jürg Schaeftlein, Oboe
Gustav Leonhardt, Gesamtleitung
- Paul Hailperin, Oboe

- Karl Gruber, Oboe

- Alfred Hertel, Tenoroboe

Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Gesamtleitung

Luogo e data di registrazione
Casino Zögernitz, Vienna (Austria) - ottobre/novembre 1972 e febbraio 1973 (BWV 31 e 34)
Amsterdam (Olanda) - aprile 1972 e febbraio 1974 (BWV 32 e 33)
Registrazione live / studio
Producer / Engineer
Wolf Erichson
Prima Edizione CD
Teldec "Das Alte Werk" - 8.35035 ZL - (2 cd) - 44' 53" + 39' 50" - (c) 1986
Prima Edizione LP
Telefunken "Das Alte Werk" - 6.35035 EX (SKW 9/1-2) - (2 lp) - 44' 53" + 39' 50" - (p) 1974

Der Himmel lacht! die Erde jubilieret (BWV 31) is ons ofthe Weimar Cantatas of the annual cycle for 1715, for which Salomo Franck had to produce the poetic writing and Bach a composition every fourth Sunday. The course of the text is typical of Franck's mystical tendencies; The Easter rejoicing at the beginning turns towards the end into the yearning of the Christian for union witn Jesus, and thus also for the onset of the ”last hour."
As is frequently the case, the musical emphasis rests on the introductory chorus (section 2). Unlike the later Bach compositions, this is not formed by combination with a concertante-style instrumental introduction as a ”uniform course” (Heinrich Besseler). It is, rather, prepared by way of an independent thematic Sonata (section 1) in order subsequently, following the consecutive principle of the motet, to bring out individual text groups in contrasting compositional movement form. (Lines l-2: choral fugue, 3-4: repetition of the choral fugue, 5~6: Adagio, mainly homophonic, again 6: Allegro: canonic structure; following this, reprise ot the fugal beginning). Of the succeeding sections, the third aria (”Letzte Stunde, brich herein") is especially worthy of mention: the concertante oboe and the solo soprano are joined by the chorale melody "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanderr ist" (When my little hour has come) by strings in unison. This chorale excerpt, whose inner relationship to the vocal text is clearly manifested, symbolises the congregation which takes up the plea ofthe soprano. At the same time, however, it heralds the final chorale, the last verse of the same hymn which, it is true, is in a simple chorale movement but is brightened up by a higher instrumental obbligato part, giving the work a restrained but nevertheless joyful conclusion.
Bach orchestrated this cantata in a particularly fine manner, and in this lies a problem for the present day with regard to performance practice. In Weimar Bach observed the older practice whereby the performance is based upon the pitch of the organ, the "choir pitch,” also called the "cornet pitch.” Only the woodwind instruments, which were in "chamber pitch” or even in ”low chamber pitch” and thus were a minor third lower than the organ, had to have their parts notated correspondingly higher, This meant for instance that the present cantata with its woodwind parts was scored in E-flat (chamber pitch), but for the rest was in C major (choir pitch) as the principal key. The actual performance key was probably in the region oi the present-day D major while our usual C major presentations lead the woodwind into inaccessible depths, and are also occasionally of unfavorably low pitch for the singers. Bach himself was faced with the same problems in Leipzig; at that time he reverted to a simple but not very satisfactory emergency solution, in that he used oboe d'arnore for the oboe I and II parts and left out the other woodwind (thus leading earlier researchers to refer erroneously to a smaller "preliminary form"). A completely satisfactory reproduction could only be achieved by tuning the string instruments at a higher pitch.
Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen (BWV 32), based on a text by Georg Christian Lehms, belongs to the third Leipzig Cantata cycle by Bach and was composed on January 13, 1726. The text is linked to the reading of the Gospels on the 12-year-old Jesus in the temple and features the form, popular since the 17th century, of a dialogue between Jesus and the soul. It draws its inner tension from the conditions of being ostensibly forsaken by God and consolation in God, which are understood to be the basic situations of human existence.
The introductory aria, arranged on the pattern of a slow concerto movement, is of exceptional beauty: Superimposed on short string chords, the oboe and soprano produce in concertante form widely-spanning, richly-ornamented arcs of melody. Whereas the center (bass) aria with its almost virtuoso violin part is still pervaded with deep gravity (note the harmonic gloominess on ”betrübter Geist” - troubled soul), the final duet strikes up notes of unclouded, almost exuberant joy. The final chorale, the 12th verse of the hymn ”Weg, mein Herz, mit den Gedanken" (Away, my heart, with such thoughts) by Paul Gerhardt (melody: ”Freu dich sehn o meine Seele” - Rejoice greatly, O my soul), was not provided for in the text, but was added by Bach.
Allein zu dir Herr Jesu Christ (BWV 33) is a chorale cantata of the second anual Leipzig cycle, composed for September 3, 1724. It is based on the three-verse song by Konrad Hubert of l 540, with the additional verse from the same year. The first and last verses from this were taken over unchanged textually and with their own chorale melody , while the two inner verses were transposed by an unknown text arranger into two related recitative-aria sequences. The reason for the choice of this hymn -the Gospel reading for the Sunday tells the parable of the good Samaritan - is probably in the main the phrase from verse 3 "vor allen Dingen lieben dich und meinen Nächsten gleich als mich” (above all love thee and my neighbours as myself), which has appeared in cantata section 5; on the whole, however, the thematic connection is only rather loose. From the abundance of musical ideas just a few are mentioned here. The introductory chorus is in accordance with the type used by Bach in most cases; the chorale is inserted line by line into a concertante orchestral movement with its own thematic style; the song melody lies in the soprano part, supported by the other voices singing in a partly chordal and partly imitative texture. Of particular charm is the textengendered theme of the alto aria (section 3), the clarity of which is perfectly revealed. Contrasting with this is the second aria (section 5), a duet for tenor and bass with two obligato oboes, with its warm tone entirely attuned to vocal rendition: instrumental and vocal melodies fuse with one another.
O ewiges Feuer, o Ursprung der Liebe (BWV 34) can be regarded as the model of a successful parody work. Composed once in early 1726 for the marriage ceremony of, presumably, a clergyman, the composition was rearranged at about the beginning of the 1740s as a Whitsun cantata, The unknown text author was given the task of connecting the music of the choir and aria sections with the readings for the first day of Whitsun. The introductory chorus derives its contrasting themes from the words ”ewiges" (eternal, tied tones) and ”Feuer” (fire, lively figuration), which had been taken over from the original text. As opposed to this, the only aria (section 3) is entirely characterised by the image of the Good Shepherd, with whom at one time the clergyman-bridegroom was compared but whose place is now taken by Jesus. The concluding chorus is unconventional with its overwhelming choral rendering of ”Friede über Israel” (peace over lsrael), which is followed by a jubilating thanksgiving chorus in two-part form.
Alfred Dürr

Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1929-2016)
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