2 LP - SKW 10/1-2 - (p) 1974

2 CD - 8.35036 ZL - (c) 1986

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

Das Kantatenwerk - Vol. 10

Kantate "Geist Und Seele wird verwirret", BWV 35
26' 52" A
Solo: Alt

Oboe I/II, Taille (Tenoroboe in f); Streicher; Organo obbligato; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

Prima Parte

- Sinfonia 5' 32"

- Aria (Alto) "Geist und Seele wird verwirret" 8' 33"

- Recitativo (Alto) "Ich wundre mich, denn alles, was man sieht" 1' 21"

- Aria (Alto) "Gott hat alles wohlgemacht" 3' 16"

Seconda Parte

- Sinfonia 3' 36"

- Recitativo (Alto) "Ach, starker Gott, laß mich doch dieses" 1' 05"

- Aria (Alto) "Ich wünsche mir, bei Gott zu leben" 3' 29"

Kantate "Schwingt freudig euch empor",  BWV 36

29' 57" B
Solo: Sopran, Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Oboe d'amore I/II; Streicher; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

Prima Parte

- Coro "Schwingt freudig euch empor" 4' 07"

- Choral (Soprano, Alto) "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland" 3' 45"

- Aria (Tenore) "Die Liebe zieht mit sanften Schritten" 5' 40"

- Choral "Zwingt die Saiten in Cythara" 1' 31"

Seconda Parte

- Aria (Basso) "Wilkommen, werter Schatz" 4' 11"

- Choral (Tenore) "Der du bist dem Vater gleich" 1' 50"

- Aria (Soprano) "Auch mit gedämpften, schwachen Stimmen" 8' 13"

- Choral "Lob sei Gott dem Vater g'ton" 0' 40"

Kantate "Wer da gläubet und getauft wird", BWV 37
16' 17" C
Solo: Sopran, Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Oboe d'amore I, II; Streicher; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Coro "Wer da gläubet und getauft wird" 2' 37"

- Aria (Tenore) "Der Glaube ist das Pfand der Liebe" 5' 25"

- Choral (Soprano, Alto) "Herr Gott Vater, mein starker Held" 3' 08"

- Recitativo (Basso) "Ihr Sterblichen, verlanget ihr mit mir" 0' 51"

- Aria (Basso) "Der Glaube schaffl der Seele Flügel" 3' 00"

- Choral "Denn Glauben mir verleihe" 1' 16"

Kantate "Auf tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir", BWV 38
18' 30" D
Solo: Sopran, Alt, Tenor, Baß - Chor

Oboe I, II; Posaune I/II/III/IV; Streicher; B.c. (Fagotto, Violoncello, Violone, Organo)

- Coro "Auf tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir" 3' 49"

- Recitativo (Alto) "In Jesu Gnade wird allein" 0' 46"

- Aria (Tenore) "Ich höre mitten in dem Leiden" 7' 49"

- Recitativo a battuta (Soprano) "Ach! daß mein Glaube noch so schwach" 1' 20"

- Terzetto (Soprano, Alto, Basso) "Wenn meine Trübsal als mit Ketten" 3' 22"

- Choral "Ob bei uns ist der Sünden viel" 1' 24"

Kantaten 35 - 36 - 37 - 38

Solist der Wiener Sängerknaben, Sopran

Paul Esswood, Alt

Kurt Equiluz, Tenor

Ruud van der Meer, Baß

Wiener Sängerknaben - Chorus Vienneisis / Hans Gillesberger, Leitung

CONCENTUS MUSICUS WIEN (mit Originalinstrumenten)

- Alice Harnoncourt, Violine
- Herbert Tachezi, Orgel
- Walter Pfeiffer, Violine - Johann Sonnleitner, Orgel (36,2; 37,3; 38,5)
- Peter Schoberwalter, Violine - Jürg Schaeftlein, Oboe, Oboe d'amore
- Wilhelm Mergl, Violine
- Paul Hailperin, Oboe, Taille, Oboe d'amore

- Josef de Sordi, Violine
- Stanley King, Oboe
- Kurt Theiner, Viola - Ernst Hoffmann, Posaune
- Milan Turkovic, Fagott - Hans Pöttler, Posaune
- Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Violoncello - Horst Küblblöck, Posaune
- Eduard Hruza, Violone - Hans Jeitler, Posaune

Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Gesamtleitung
Luogo e data di registrazione
Palais Rasumowsky, Vienna (Austria) - febbraio e aprile 1974
Registrazione live / studio
Producer / Engineer
Wolf Erichson
Prima Edizione CD
Teldec "Das Alte Werk" - 8.35036 ZL - (2 cd) - 57' 15" + 35' 07" - (c) 1986 - ADD
Prima Edizione LP
Telefunken "Das Alte Werk" - 6.35036 EX (SKW 10/1-2) - (2 lp) - 57' 15" + 35' 07" - (p) 1974

Geist und Seele wird verwirret (BWV 35) is one of those cantatas of the third Leipzig annual cycle for which Bach once again used the texts of the Darmstadt court poet Georg Christian Lehms from 1711. In view of the fact that the Sunday Gospel reading reports on the healing of a deaf-mute, the Lehms text is not only generally full of praise tor God's miracles, but also at times specifically refers to the bible text (”Den Tauben gibst du das Gehör, den Stummen ihre Sprache wieder” - The deaf Thoce cause again to hear, the dump will speak; Mark 7: 37).
Bach’s composition, written for September 8, 1725, is a "cantata" in the narrower sonse, since its text, to the exclusion of bible phrases and chorale, is restricted exclusively to madrigal-type poetry, and the composition only calls for an alto soloist, The task that falls to the instruments is thus all the richer, with the organ preceding all the rest as the concerto-style solo instrument. The introductory sinfonias of the two cantata parts load us onto the trail of a missing instrumental concerto (probably from Bach’s Köthen period), the solo part of which (oboe?) is now taken over by the organ; perhaps even the introductory aria (movement 2) originated from the slow movement ot this concerto.
However, in the other arias too, the organ proves to be the only obbligato instrument. Thus Bach’s art had to pass the test of achieving the necessary variety by technical compositional means, such as alternating between a full-voiced and less sumptuous texture as well as making changes in stylistic approach etc. He was eminently successful in this, particularly in the three arias: The first (movement 2) is a warm siciliano, full-voiced and pervaded by the filigree-style figuration of the obbligato organ; the second (movement 4) is scored only for obbligato organ, and with its far-reaching sequence of themes and vocal coloraturas is more expansive, while the third (movement 7), once more with full instrumentation, despite the expressed yearning for reunion with God, displays a gay, dance-like character.
Schwingt freudig euch empor (BWV 36), the Advent cantata known to us in the version performed for the first time on December 2, 1731, has unusually complicated historical origins. In the second half of the 1720s when Bach performed the introductory chorus and arias of a secular anniversary cantata in a spiritual parody and with a concluding chorale (the last verse from ”Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern”) as an Advent Cantata, he himself prohahiy noticed the inadequacy of this transformation. When rearranging the work for 1731 he took fresh, unique paths. The cantata was extended to two parts; the former concluding chorale now ended the first part of the cantata and was assigned another verse (6 instead of 7). The actual peculiarity, however, lies in the fact that recitatives do not appear as otherwise usual, between the chorus and aria movements, but chorale arrangements of the Lutheran hymn "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland.” Textual cohesion, which the connecting recitative was primarily in the habit of underpinning, was loosened in favor of musical unity by means of frequent use of the same hymn melody.
Thus in its final form the cantata is also characterised by alternation between unahashed welcoming joy in the chorus and aria movements, as well as in the final chorale of the first part, and grave preoccupation with the miracle of Christ in human form as manifested in the inserted chorale movements. Admittedly both have in common a tendency toward mystical fervour, as expressed musically in the cries of "nun komm,” in the chromatic passage on "Gott solch Geburt ihm bestellt” of the second movement, or in the sound of the muted solo violin of the seventh movement. But textually this fervent trait is on the other hand particularly noticeable in the comparison of the Christian and Jesus with bride and bridegroom in movement 3 or in the injunction ”zieh bei mir ein” in movement 5.
Wer da gläubet und getauft wird (BWV 37) is one of a series of cantatas of the first Leipzig annual cycle based on texts of an unknown poet. It was assumed, perhaps with some veracity, that the poet was a theologian. The text is clearly arranged: section 1 establishes the theme with a phrase from the Gospel of the Ascension; sections 2, 4 and 5 elaborate this - not without an instructive concluding summary (”und daher heisst ein selger Christ, wer gläubet und getaufet ist"), and the chorale sections 3 and 6 are prayer-like confirmation in the name of the congregation.
The opening movement is the most impressive in the cantata, which for all its festive character is kept within the scope of a chambtir cantata in regard to instruments scored. The thematic developrnent of the opening chorus is largely carried by the instruinents.
Movement 2 has come down to us in incomplete form, for it lacks a solo violin part. With the aid of the tenor and continuo parts that have been retained it can be adequately reconstructed, not as regards notes but style, so that the impression of a fragmentary element is avoided. Among the succeeding movements the chorale arrangement of movement 3 is remarkable: here Bach breathes new life into the traditional type of thin-textured chorale concerto of the seventeenth century, enriching it with such stylistic methods of the eighteenth century as thematic characterization of contrary parts or wide-ranging instrumental lines and thus lends the movement a modern air.
Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir (BWV 38) belongs to the chorale cantatas ol the second yearly Leipzig cycle and was played for the first time on October 29, 1724. The Gospel reading tells ot a noble man who learns that Jesus has healed his sick son upon learning of the father's steadfast faith. His call to Jesus for help and his belief have determined the selection of the hymn which has been talken over unchanged with its outer verses, while the inner verses have been recast to form the cantata movements 2, 3 and 5. Movement 4 provides the conceptual link with the Gospel.
For the church mode (Phrygian) melody of the Lutheran hymn Bach chooses in the introductory chorus the form of the motet-style chorale arrangement: Each line of the melody is prepared imitatively in the lower parts and then brought out by the soprano on sustained notes;  the instruments, except for the continuo, run parallel with the vocal parts. It is true, though, that this archaic, emotionally detached style of composition is occasionally given a more modern text-related melodic shape. This becomes most apparent in the chromaticism ot the lines "was Sünd und Unrecht ist getan."
The tenor ana (movement 3) is the only movment composed in the aria manner customary for the time with concertante instruments. In place of the second aria there is a trio (movenwnt 5) which, despite occasional melodic passages, nevertheless displays striking similarity with the motet style of the opening movement. Among the recitatives, movement 4 should be especially stressed, which Bach based on the melody of the Lutheran hymn as continuo bass (at the beginning in A, from bar 5 onwards in D Phrygian), so that the vocal part has to be rendered a battuta, i.e. with a firm rhythm.

Alfred Dürr

Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1929-2016)
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